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Bi

Bismuth

83208.98
General Information
  • Melting Point: 545 K (272°C)
  • Boiling Point: 1837 K (1564°C)
  • Density: 9.780 g/cm3
  • Type of Substance: Post-Transition Metal
  • Year of Discovery: 1753
Electrons and Ionisation
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
  • Electrons Per Shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
  • Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
  • Electronegativity: 2.02
History

In early times bismuth was confused with tin and lead. So although bismuth had been discussed many times before, Claude Geoffroy the Younger showed it to be distinct from lead in 1753.

Engineering
  • Resistivity: 1.29  µΩ·m
  • Poisson Ratio: 0.33
  • Magnetism: Diamagnetism
  • Young's Modulus: 32 GPa
  • Shear Modulus: 12 GPa
  • Bulk Modulus: 31 GPa
  • Mohs Hardness: 2
  • Brinell Hardness: 70 - 95 MPa
  • Thermal Expansion: 13.4×10-6 K-1
  • Thermal Conductivity: 7.97 W/m·K