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Pb

Lead

82207.20
General Information
  • Melting Point: 601 K (328°C)
  • Boiling Point: 2022 K (1749°C)
  • Density: 11.340 g/cm3
  • Type of Substance: Post-Transition Metal
  • Year of Discovery: 7000 BC
Electrons and Ionisation
  • Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
  • Electrons Per Shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
  • Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4
  • Electronegativity: 1.87
History

Lead has been known for ages and is mentioned in Exodus. Alchemists believed lead to be the oldest metal and associated it with the planet Saturn. They spent a lot of time trying to "transmute" lead into gold.

Engineering
  • Resistivity: 208  nΩ·m
  • Poisson Ratio: 0.44
  • Magnetism: Diamagnetism
  • Young's Modulus: 16 GPa
  • Shear Modulus: 5.6 GPa
  • Bulk Modulus: 46 GPa
  • Mohs Hardness: 2
  • Brinell Hardness: 38 - 50 MPa
  • Thermal Expansion: 28.9×10-6 K-1
  • Thermal Conductivity: 35.3 W/m·K